The large facility
To carry out their research activities, the academic and industrial labs use generally their own facilities and engineers/researchers. Nevertheless, some research programs require investments (facilities but also skills) so large that these laboratories must share them. Large equipment of research is a pooled means, for communities of researchers, gathering conditions of volumes, time, states of the matter, and energy so different from usual conditions (the famous so-called standard temperature and pressure conditions) to make it too much expensive for one research lab. Access to such a facility is possible through a program committee which prioritize proposed research projects.
With slightly different names (infrastructure, facility, equipment, instrument ; always described as large, even very large), a large research facility is the heart of national or international networks: « very large research infrastructures » (TGIR) at the French ministry for research, a program coined « Very large instruments » (TGI) with the objective and performance contract between the French government and the High commission for nuclear energy and renewable energy, a European program « European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures » (ESFRI). The Web site dedicated to the latter will give you the complete panorama of all the projects ESFRI whose significant portion requests the competences taught in the master degree-2 describes below: Extreme Light Infrastructure (ELI-Europe of theEast), Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research(Hamburg-Germany), System of production ofRadioactive Ions online of 2nd generation(Caen-France),…
The master’s programme “Large facilities”
Conception, construction, operation and management of such facilities require engineers / researchers teams with multi-disciplinary skills, have an expert knowledge in engineering, technology and physics as to be able to dialog and to dedicate their time to users. To meet the competences associated to large research, a full second-year of master program called “Large facilities” is proposed, a multidisciplinary program, composed with 6 month of teaching traditional entailing 350 h of lectures/tutorials/hands-on and a 6-month long mentored research internship. Theformation is characterized by the many practical works completed in research laboratories locatedwithin the Paris-Saclay University, in the valley ofOrsay or of course the plate of Saclay.
Plasmas and technologies
The curriculum is aimed at educating plasma physicists with skills encompassing experimentation, simulation and analytical modeling on physics domains associated to the the large facilities where electromagnetism play a dominant role: particle accelerators, lasers, tokamaks. These three types of instruments contribute to create and to control a plasma, i.e. an ionized medium made up of free charged particles. Many techniques are put forward within this framework:
- To inject a plasma: with cryogenicdevices of deuterium mixture and tritium for fusion or many injectors separating ions and electrons to be used as sources of particles with the accelerators;
- To confine plasmas: with materials of high mechanical resistance under high heat flux or irradiation and/or with intense magnetic fields carried out with superconductive coils kept at very low temperature;
- To heat plasmas or to accelerate particles: with lasers featuring a high peakpower in excess of terawatt or generators of radio frequencies;
- To diagnose plasmas, beams and various underlying phenomena: with various instruments collecting with a high temporal resolution (down to the femtoseconde), space and spectral (from 1 electronvolt up to 1 GeV) the radiations or the particles escaping from the plasma.
Gathering around the large installations dedicated to research
In order to provide to the students the skills required to take benefit of the great research programs and the large associated facilities, one month of the programme is organized near large installations with strong international visibility, where courses, tutorials and hands-on sessions accompanied by visits are given to the students gathered with students of other classes:
- SuperconductiveTokamak Tore-Supra/West located atCEA/Cadarache near the future tokamak ITER with the students of the European master degree Erasmus Mundus Fusion-EP;
- Lasers of power LMJ and Petal delivering nanosecond pulses and picosecond pulses located at CEA/Bordeaux with the students of themaster degree of physics of the university of Bordeaux;
- Accélérators of the European Center of nuclear research (CERN) close to Geneva, of Paul Scherrer Institüt close to Zurich, the ESRF in Grenoble with students,doctorands coming from the universities andlaboratories dispersed on all Europe. Thisregrouping is coordinated by the Joint Universities Accelerator School (JUAS), in partnership with 16 universities European and sponsored by many research organizationsand companies of the sector of the accelerators. For the year 2017-2018, a call to the students of master degree candidates open was at the end of the year passed: JUAS 2018 – Apply now;
This multidisciplinary program, bridging engineering and research, can fit student engineers intending to move towards research and university students open to engineering jobs. This cross-training program will offer the students opportunities to integrate either a public research institution (after a PhD) or a leading-edge research and development group in a private company.